Dmanisi (Georgian: დმანისი, translit.: dmanisi, pronounced) is a town and archaeological site in the Kvemo Kartli region of Georgia approximately 93 km southwest of the nation’s capital Tbilisi in the river valley of Mashavera. The hominin site is the earliest of its kind outside of Africa, dating back to 1.81 Ma. A series of skulls from Dmanisi, discovered in the early 2010s, led to the hypothesis that many separate species in the Homo genus were in fact a single lineage. Also known as Skull 5, D4500 is the fifth skull to be discovered in Dmanisi.