Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka. It is known as Kudla in Tulu, Kodial in Konkani, Maikāla in Beary and Mangaluru in Kannada. It is located about 352 kilometres (220 mi) west of the state capital, Bengaluru between the Arabian Sea and the Western Ghat mountain ranges. It is the administrative headquarters of the Dakshina Kannada district. It developed as a port on the Arabian Sea—remaining, to this day, a major port of India. Lying on the backwaters of the Netravati and Gurupura rivers, Mangalore is often used as a staging point for sea traffic along the Malabar Coast. The city has a tropical climate and lies in the path of the Arabian Sea branch of the South-West monsoons. Mangalore's port handles 75 per cent of India's coffee and cashew exports. Mangalore was ruled by several major powers, including the Kadambas, Alupas, Vijayanagar Empire, Keladi Nayaks and the Portuguese. The city was a source of contention between the British and the Mysore rulers, Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Eventually annexed by the British in 1799, Mangalore remained part of the Madras Presidency until India's independence in 1947. The city was unified with the state of Mysore (now called Karnataka) in 1956.
Mangalore is the largest city in Dakshina Kannada district and is one of the most cosmopolitan non-metro cities of India. It is also the largest city in the Coastal and Malnad regions of Karnataka, besides being a commercial, industrial, educational and healthcare hub on the West Coast of India. Mangalore city urban agglomeration extends from Ullal in the south to Mulki in the north, covering a distance of over 40 km. The city's landscape is characterised by rolling hills, coconut palms, freshwater streams and hard red-clay tiled-roof buildings.