Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines. Mindanao and the smaller islands surrounding it makeup the island group of the same name. As of the 2010 census, the main island was inhabited by 20,281,545 people, while the entire Mindanao island group had a total of 21,968,174 residents.
According to the 2015 Philippine Population Census, Davao City is the most populous city on the island, with a population of 1,632,991 residents, followed by Zamboanga City (pop. 861,799), Cagayan de Oro City (pop. 675,950), General Santos City (pop. 594,446) and Iligan City (pop. 342,618). About 70% of residents identify as Christian, and 20% identify as Muslim. Mindanao is divided into 6 Regions; Zamboanga Peninsula, Northern Mindanao, Caraga, Davao, Soccsksargen, and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM).
Native ethnic groups in Mindanao include the Lumad (the Tausugs, Subanons, Samals, and Badjaos of the Zamboanga Peninsula; the Bukidnon, Manobos, Mamanwas, Talaandig, and Higaonon of Northern Mindanao and Caraga; the Bagobo and Samal Mandayas of Davao), and the Moro (Paramata Bantogen, Mabaning Gandamatu, Daranda Mabagani, and Maranaw) in ARMM and Soccsksargen.
Mindanao is also dubbed with the monikers The Philippines' Land of Promise.